Documentaţia grafică a pregătirii biletelor de tezaur şi a bancnotelor pentru reforma monetară din România în anul 1952 / Preparations of Treasury and Bank Notes for the Monetary Reform in Romania in 1952
|Limba de redactare||română|
|Excerpt||By the turn of 1940's and 1950's, a series of monetary reforms were carried out in Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia a few years after these countries had carried out a monetary reform immediately or shortly after the end of the World War II. Except of Poland, where the second monetary reform was executed in certain autonomy, the second monetary reforms in next three countries were made with intensive conceptual and technical assistance of USSR. The real causes and history of these reforms are little known. They belong to the least investigated parts of the modern history of the respective countries. Scarce information is also available about the coins and banknotes having been issued during these reforms.
Recently, essays and proof prints of the paper money printed in GOZNAK in 1951-1953 for ROMANIA, Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia have been discovered in the special archive of the Russian Security Printing Office GOZNAK. Completeness of this material differs in the case of individual countries. Mostly just definitive form of hand-drawn essays and specimens have been preserved, only rarely also some alternative essays or accompanying materials. In contrast to it, the graphical documentation of preparations of paper money for Romania in 1951/1952 represents a unique set of the documents, whose significance, from numismatic aspect, exceed the framework of Romania. This set can be divided into two parts.
The first part includes unknown alternative assays for the Romanian 20 lei note and a photograph of a 100 lei note created probably by the Romanian engraver Ş. Zainea in connection with innovation of Romania paper money in the years 1949-1950. The Romanian authorities gave these essays to GOZNAK as a pictorial base for designing new paper money for the monetary reform of 1952. The alternative essays for the 20-lei note were determined as a base for designing the 1.3 and 5 lei notes, while the essay of 100-lei note for the new 25-lei note.
The decisions of the Romanian authorities were respected only from a part. Eventually, some decorative elements, principal graphical concepts and motives of the 20-lei essays were combined at designing the new notes of 1, 3, 5 and 10 lei, while the 100-lei note was used at designing the new 25-lei note. Degree of preserving the original elements and concepts of Ş. Zainea differs considerably.
The second part includes a great number of simple sketches and assays in semi-final form for individual denominations. Many of them represent alternative solutions and their combinations designed simultaneously by two authors. Some of them clearly illustrate the gradual genesis from the original Romanian model up to the final projects, whereas other ones are based on older unrealized essays of soviet money from the early 1940-ies or represent original solution of the two principal designers of GOZNAK, Ivan lvanovich Dubasov and Serghey Alekseyevich Pomanskhii. The essays also reveal that the circulating Romanian paper money, particularly the 20- and
1000-lei notes of 1950, served at final modifications of the designs.
The surprisingly abundant alternative essays were designed in spite of the obvious luck of time for manufacturing and delivery of the notes. The dates printed on some specimens indicate that the notes were printed only three weeks before executing the reform on 28 January 1952.
The technical level of the notes lays deeply under the excellent abilities of the GOZNAK printing office, as well as the analogical money produced in GOZNAK at that time for other countries. From that aspect they have a provisional character.
In spite of preserving the style typical of most products of GOZNAK, the whole series shows considerable compositional and thematic heterogeneity. It results from the necessity or effort to respect the original projects supplied by the Romanian part, which themselves showed two different concepts, and to unify them with the tradition of the GOZNAK style.
The documents studied give evidence that, in contradiction to the strong criticism of some authors, the designers of GOZN AK searched the best available solution of the banknote design even under time pressure, of cause, within their artistic opinion, creative potential and external possibilities.
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