Ştanţe de medalii şi monede, jetoane, miniaturi şi falsuri monetare din colecţia Muzeului Naţional de Istorie a României / Dies of Medals and Coins, Tokens, Miniatures and Coin Forgeries From the Collection of the National History Museum of Romania
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|Excerpt||The article presents dies of medals and coins, tokens, miniatures and forgeries of modern Romanian coins, purchased in 1972 and 1978 from George Buzdugan and in 1992 from Ecaterina Şovăială from Bucharest, a distant relative of Buzdugan. The author followed the chronological sequence, thus identifying the dies used to issue official medals. Almost all the specimens are the work of Menachem Carniol, father and son; one is signed by Carniol and Radivon and only one specimen by Radivon alone (both were employed by the Royal House).
The first die is the one employed for the reverse of the prize medal of the agriculture and industry contest in Botoşani, 1879. The next specimens dates to 1880 - the pair of dies that was never used, engraved for the same contest in Botoşani - as well as the die used for the obverse of a medal which commemorated the foundation of the Literary society „Generaţia Nouă".
The following dies were created in 1896, to issue the medals dedicated to the visit of Emperor Franz Josef in Romania. The National History Museum of Romania holds the lunch of the medal dedicated to the participation of Franz Josef, Charles I and Alexander Caragheorghevici at the opening of the Iran Gates' channel, as well as two lower dies used for the same lower die, both having 29mm in diameter, but signed in a different manner: the first CARNIOL FIUL created along with the punch, because on the scarf of Charles I the lines present the same pattern with the ones on the punch, and the second, signed only CARNIOL, where the decorations of the scarf are different in style.
The next specimen is the punch employed for the reverse of the medal dedicated to the parade of the Romanian army in Bucharest, at 17/29 September 1896. Using this punch was created the die no. 9, which has the same symbols (six-sided stars) and the same errors in the legend. The die no. 10, used for the same reverse, is different in what concerns the symbols (dots) and the legend, this time correct. From the same year 1896 there is another die used for the visit of Emperor Franz Josef in Bucharest and Sinaia on 16, 17 and 18 September 1896, also employed for the decoration medal "Pentru devotement şi curaj", signed CARNIOL-RADIVON.
The next specimens are from 1897. A punch used for the obverse die of the medal "Principele Ferdinand", issued by the officers of the Regimentul 4 Roşiori to commemorate its salvation; on the surface several perpendicular lines were engraved to mark the cancellation of the die. The National History Museum of Romania holds also the die, which is a variety of the same medal. From the same year there are: the obverse die for the commemoration of Al. Lahovary, the reverse die of the commemoration of the death of Dimitrie Gr. Ghika and the obverse die for the medal "Distincţie la purtare" issued by the "Şcoala profesională de fete" founded by Filip and Raşela Focşăneanu.
The next specimens are from 1898. The first one is a die intended to issue the official octagonal medal, that was never used, then a die for the same medal, but this time the common round-shaped type, also never used. The following one is a die for the obverse of the official medal issued by a committee to commemorate the Târgu Jiu monument erected in honor of Tudor Vladimirescu and a similar die, but of a smaller size, for mass distribution. Another die is the one employed for the obverse of the official medal issued for the "Rebuilt of the Cathedral St. Alexander from Alexandria" and the one with a smaller size for popular distribution. The next one is the die for the school medal granted as a distinction at the end of the elementary school, "Distincţiune Ia purtare" and "Distincţiune la studiu", as well as the die for the obverse distributed as a prize by "Azilul Elena Doamna - Secţia Normală" and finally the die for the obverse of the token „Manufactura de tutun din Bucureşti".
From 1900 there are three dies - the punch for the obverse of the official medal „Sfinţirea drapelelor Armatei - Toţi pentm Patrie şi Rege'', and a popular variety distributed in commemoration of the renewal of the military flags of several regiments and the granting of flags to new regiments. The next dies are: the die for the obverse of „Inaugurarea Monumentului Independenţei din Tulcea", dated 1900. Another variety of the medal has the legend „Ţara şi Dobrogenii Recunoscători - Omagiu Armatei Marelui Căpitan", also dated 1900. The latter is a medal so far unknown, designed to commemorate this event.
The next dies are: the ones for the obverse and reverse of the popular medal „Marelui Ştefan cel Mare la împlinirea a 400 de ani de la moartea sa" which can be ascribed to Camiol and Radivon, who also worked together for the die of the reverse of the medal issued for „Restaurarea bisericii Sf. Apostol Petru şi Pavel din Alexandria" although is unsigned.
The collection comprises also two dies of masonic medals; the first for the reverse of „Loja Română din Bucureşti sub obedienta Marelui Ordin de Italia", dated 1907, the bronye tzpe and thc die for the obverse of the medal „Loja Sapienţia Bucureşti", dated 1911. Both are created by Carniol, who was member of the Romanian Masonry.
From 1914 dates the die of a popular medal, here an unknown variety, issued for „Moartea Regelui Carol I", signed RADIVON, and from 1921 is the die for „Mărturia de botez a naşterii principelui Mihai".
The author also presents dies used to strike coins. The oldest is the die used for the reverse of „10 Bani 1867", issued by Watt from Birmingham, one of the first Romanian coins issued in England, through the firms Watt and Heaton. The die which is very worn was cancelled by engraving a cross an sent back to Romania. This is the first known die used to issue the first series of Romanian coins. The next one is a die of the obverse of „s Lei" during the reign of Charles II, signed A. LAVRILLIER and the punch of a coin intended by Mihai I , 1947, but never issued, which presents some stripes, probably also for cancelation. The die is signed Haralambie Ionescu.
In the Şovăială collection there are also three tokens dated 1908 and 1913 imitating the 20 kreuzers coin issued by Francisc I; on the obverse is the bust of the emperor with a Hungarian legend and on the reverse is the coat of arms of Austria and a Romanian legend. In the legend there is a mention of the metal composition: silver plated.
In the Şovăială collection there are also four miniatures after Romanian coins: Charles I - „10 Bani 1867" and „1 Ban 1867", „2 Bani 1880" and „20 Lei 1883". They are kept in the original gold plated box, which has on one side the bust of King Charles I and the legend MONETELE TUTUROR POPOARELOR ÎN MINIATURĂ and on the other side the coat of arms of Romania and the legend L. CHR. LAUER NÜRENBERG - "1896 ".
Among the Şovăială collection there are also fakes after modern silver coins (2 Lei 1873 and 1911; 5 Lei 1881 and 1930; 10 Lei 1930; 20 Lei 1930; 100 Lei 1930, 1932 and 1936; 250 Lei 1935, so Lei 1937 and 1938; 20 Lei 1944-194s; 1 Leu 1963; 3 Lei 1963), struck in common metal, lead or tin, silver plated lead, white metal, bronze, brass, zinc or bronze plated metal. These are the creations used to fool the naive at local antique fairs. There are also two fakes of "250 Lei 1935", countermarked by the National Mint.
In the collection there are also some striking errors: two "1 Leu 1924" one with incuse obverse, and the second off-center; a blank for a "100 Lei" or a "50 Lei 1937" with the diameter 26mm; a "5 Bani 1952-1953" with a blank reverse and a "10 Bani 1956" off-center and wrongly cut.
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