Monedele aflate în circulaţie în Ţara Românească în prima jumătate a secolului al XVIII-lea - Putere de achiziţie şi cursuri de schimb / Coins Used on the Wallachian Monetary Market during the First Half of the 18th Century - Purchaising Value and Exchange Rates
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|Excerpt||During the first half of the 18th century the most common issues used in Wallachia were:
1. The Hungarian or Transylvanian gold florin, called in Romanian - Ughi.- In the contemporary sources the Hungarian gold coin was also called: zlot de aur (golden zlot), zloţi (zlots), zloţi ungureşti (Hungarian zlots), zloţi roşii ungureşti (Hungarian red zlots), galbeni (yellow [coins]), ungari d'oro, florin unguresc (Hungarian florin). Despite their name the Wallachian zlots or florins were not at all gold coins, but of silver.
2. The Lion thaler - called in Romanian taler- leu or, just leu. The Low Countries large silver issues were not only the most common thaler size circulating currency during the 17th – 18th century, but later became the main account money of the Romanian Principalities. During 1693-1703 the Lion-thaler was valuated at 132 bani (deniers or akçes). In Oltenia, in 1728 it worth 133 bani or 100 de kreuzers. On the Wallachian monetary market always was made a distinction between the lion-thalers and other kind of thalers.
3. The piaster - called in Romanian piastru. The name was used for the Ottoman large silver coins.
4. The Spanish thalers - called in Romanian taleri spanioli, reali or stâlpari (coins with pillars).
5. The florin - called in Romanian florin. Used to designate several kinds of large silver coins, such as the Hungarian florin, during the 17th – 18th century valuated at 100 deniers or 50 kreuzers, or the Rhenanian florin, worth 60 kreuzers or 1/2 thaler. In 1728 the Hungarian florin worth 66.50 bani and the Rhenanian one 90 bani.
6. The tult - called in Romanian tultul. It was an Ottoman silver small-change worth 1/3 piaster. In the Romanian Principalities the tult was also called leiţă, being used until the 19th century. In 1709 it worth 1/2 zlot or 44 akçes. During the 1720's the tult was valuated at 8 to 10 good Imperial groats, and during the second half of the same century it was rated at 1/3 of „an old lion-thaler (leu)", 15 paras or 5 groats.
7. The kreuzer - called in Romanian creiţar or crucer. This denomination was used most for the small payments, in the every-day life. On the Romanian marked were in currency, mostly, the larger denominations of the kreuzer, such: 3; 5; 6; 10; 12; 15; 17 and 20 kreuzers. The zwanziger was commonly called in Romanian "şfanţi". There were also used the copper 1/2 and 1/4 kreuzers. The pieces of 17 kreuzet were known in Romanian as „măriaş". Later, because their strong devaluation, the Prince Alexander Moruzi forbid the use of the pieces of 6 and 12 kreuzers. In Transylvania, during the second half of the 18th century the kreuzer worth 2 Hungarian dinars or ½ polturac.
8. The şuştac - Was a Polish coin of 6 groats, used for every-day needs. In Wallachia the şustac worth 8 denars. In 1709 on the marked were in currency „old" and "new" şustacs.
9. The polturac, also called poltra or poltura. At the beginnings they were two different denominations, struck in silver and copper, a Polish and Imperial ones. It worth l/40th of a Rhenanian florin or 3 denars. Actually it was a piece of a 1/2 groat or 2 kreuzers.
10. The para. It was at the beginning an Egyptian denomination, borrowed by the Ottomans during the 17th century. In 1564 it worth in Wallachia 1.5 akçes. During the reign of Constantine Brâncoveanu worth 2.9 akçes, with some fluctuations (from 2.9 in 1688 to 2.3 in 1705). After the great monetary reform from the Ottoman Empire from 1687 the para worth 1/40th of a piaster. At the beginning of the 18th century at the border station of Focşani, 2 paras = 1 1/2 Imperial groats (I para= 0.75 groat). It was used on the Romanian monetary market till 1867, when the modem monetary system was established. The para was used also as a part (l/40th of the account lion-thaler).
11. The ban. In the medieval and modem Romanian the word was used to designate, broadly speaking, any currency, as well as the small silver issues, such as the Wallachian 1/2 ducats during the 14th -15th century, and later the Hungarian deniers or the Ottoman. In 1687, when the large Ottoman silver coins were issued the ban became its smallest change. An Ottoman piaster worth 120 aspers or bani. Later, from 1694, a piaster worth 132 bani (see Condica ...). The base silver or copper bani were in currency in Wallachia until the early 19th century. As their weight was between 0.20-0.45 g. (with a medium of 0.35), their market value suffered a severe devaluation.
12. The dinar. It was the Hungarian dinars, one of the most common small silver issues used in
13. The pitac. The pitac was an Austrian coin of 5 kreuzers. In Oltenia, in 1728 it worth 10 bani.
14. The costanda - called in Romanian potronic. Was a Polish issue of 3 groats. The 3 groats arrived in Wallachia during the first half of the 17th century and disappeared from the currency starting with the reign of Nicolas Mavrocordat. During the late 17th and early 18th century the costanda became an account coin. It worth 10 bani.
15. The groat - called in Romanian groş. At the beginnings was a Polish coin. During the 17th century in Poland and Transylvania were issued multiples of the groat.
16. The rouble and kopek - called in Romanian rubla and copeica. Peter I struck large silver coins of 20.76g (736‰fine), and their l/100th small change, the kopek. On the Romania monetary market the Russian currency stated to arrive after 1711. In 1711, 10 lei worth 6 roubles, and 1 rouble was valuated to 1.5 thalers. However, until the second half of the 18th century the Russian currency played a very limited position on the Romanian monetary market.
The author gives also several information on the current prices, wages, interest rates and taxes in
Wallachia during the first half of the 18th century, as well as on the account system used by the financial administration of the Principality.
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