Noi contribuţii privind contramarcarea monedelor elenistice în oraşele vest-pontice dobrogene / New Contributions Regarding the Countermarking of the Hellenistic Coins in the West-Pontic Cities from Dobrudja
|Limba de redactare||română (rezumat în engleză)|
|Excerpt||All the three west-Pontic cities from Dobrudja knew within their own mints the countermarking practice during the autonomous period, more precisely during the Hellenistic period. Of the three poleis, Callatis and Tomis used a great variety of countermarks, which were mainly punched on bronze pieces of large and medium module. Within these countermarks, deities representative for the local and regional religious world, like Helios, Demetra, Hermes, Athens, Apollo, the Great God etc. (according to those presented in this catalog) were depicted. All of them are illustrated by the corresponding profile head, always oriented to the right, accompanied by their attributes (rays, helmet, petassos etc.). The dimensions of the countermarks are varied, even for the same deity. Consequently, either the coins were countermarked in different cities, or the same mint used two different punches at a certain time, in order to mark the differences between some monetary reforms carried out when the image of the same deity was still in use.
In this study, a number of four coins of Apollo/tripod type, 31 coins of the Great God type, ten coins of Dioscurs and one piece of Zeus type of medium module from Tomis are presented. Two coins of Demeter type and one of Dyonisus/ivy wreath type struck at Callatis, are represented. In the end, the mint from Istros is present with four coins with large module that could belong to the Demeter and Apollo types. The Istros coins are specific to the late Hellenistic period and due to the countermarking, they circulated as well during the first part of the 1st century.
The 53 bronze coins were found in Constanta/Tomis (Constanta County), Izvoarele (Constanta County), Mangalia/Callatis (Constanta County), Palazu Mic (Gura Dobrogei commune, Constanta County) and Dobrudja passim. It is worth mentioning that the coins from Constanţa originate, among other things, from the archaeological excavations carried out at the Roman Mosaic Edifice between the years 1960-1962, while those from Mangalia are part of a small funeral deposit probably fully recovered during the years 70’s-80’s of the last century.
The use of the countermarking process during the Hellenistic period reveals the fact that the cities were no longer able to procure, locally or from import, metal resources for the striking of new coins needed for the economic and commercial operations. That is why they appealed to exceptional mechanisms and offered new values as means of exchange, depending on the local needs, to some coins which already had an iconography depicted on the obverse and on the reverse. This monetary phenomenon is encouraged by the general crisis in the West-Pontic area during the late Hellenistic period, being a symptom of it.
The local mints from Histria, Callatis and Tomis had to adapt to the new conditions by carrying out repetitive urgent monetary reforms, in order to support the economic and commercial factors.
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